provides an overview of the development of research findings and theories related to knowledge management.

  1. Knowledge as Resource and Process
  2. Interaction for Knowledge Creation
  3. Activity as a Context

Knowledge can be view as a resource and a process of learning. In the resource view, knowledge is conceptualized as an object that exists largery in formal documents or online artifacts amenable to organizing and manipulation.

knowledge itself may be perceived as a resource, its creation occurs through human interactions, whether physical or virtual. Nonaka and Takeuchi [1995] in their seminal work have also alluded to knowledge creation as a process of socialization that is predicated on the need for direct social interactions.

Nonaka and Takeuchi’s SECI (Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization) model posits a spiral-type process in which knowledge goes from within a person’s own knowledge store to a more explicit state that can be shared socially with others.

By suggesting an alternative stance of knowing Blackler recognizes that knowledge permeates activity systems within the organization. Blackler, F. [1995] proposes that knowledge can be observed as emerging out of the tensions that arise within an organization’s activity systems, that is, among individuals and their communities, their environment (rules and regulations), and the instruments and resources that mediate their activities. Through immersion in joint activity, individuals in organizations gain tacit knowledge, the sharing of which occurs as a result of the mutual participation [Tsoukas, H., 1996].

Resource :

Knowledge Management (KM) Process in Organization that was written by Claire R. McInerney.